I. strangers attempt

Our time whaling differs in many ways from the old whaling. It applies whale species that had not previously been subject to systematic hunting of large-scale, it has in a rational way all the modern technology in its service, it is for part been driven to new fields and it has been strongly influenced by a new people management position.

The Norwegian people who have played such a dominant role in modern whaling, Never before has rendered an approximately equal commitment on this industry. The earlier periods in the history of whaling has mainly been influenced by other people's initiative and act urge. It was Basques, Dutchmen, Britons and Americans who excelled primarily under the old whaling. But the fact that Norwegians right from prehistoric times - albeit at times in a modest scale - either have driven, or participating in other peoples whaling,1)is bl. a. following literature: "The catchers in Finnmarken" Captain Juel in N. Fiskerit. 1888, 129-140 and 231-'252 and SStd 1889, 165—171.1 — P. R. Sollied, Whaling from Bergen in older times. Bergen History Society of writings. No. 24 (Bergen 1911), 138-184 - Shaking, 96—103. - The book, 7—’12^^| Kristian Ostberg, Old Norwegian primitive whaling. Norwegian peasant straight IX, 76—99. nevertheless seems to tie a bond between the old and the new whaling.

It is as we shall see, other connections between the old and the new in this area. It relates admittedly so that under modern whaling has exploited certain new hunting grounds, but for no small part, the new catch found until fields people knew from earlier of, because fin whales to a certain extent has stayed in the same waters as the whales a former used to catch.

Proceed to a closer examination of the shooting work tool development, discovers a strangers people already under the old whaling had invented and partly adopted shooting tools that can look like - and probably to some extent also to some extent served as - precursors to the harpoons and guns that have played such a significant role under modern whaling.

Already in the 1700s introduced the English a swing cannon whaling which, however, was not going to get normal distribution.2)W. Scoresby, An Account of the Arctic Regions, with a History and Description of the Northern Whale-Fishery II (Edinburgh 1820), 227 f. In the years around 1850 was in England,3)cf.. British Patents for Inventions 1840—1860. America4)cf.. The. S. A. Patents 1840—1870. and elsewhere invented a host of new shooting tools that have features in common with those who have been utilized during the modern whaling. There were certainly several factors that gave rise to these inventions. The catch had at this time a fairly large extent, and one can clearly trace certain tendencies in the direction of making it more efficient. Whaling vessels had become quite large, and their crews outnumbering before. The new inventions in shooting tool Clausewitz dare enough be seen as part of a larger effort to streamline the catch. Furthermore, it was only natural that the inventors who were interested in whaling, now sought to exploit the significant results one was reached on the interest-shoot technical area. A dare assume that the inventors were impressed to modernize shoot implements also because the whales on the ever spent the whales had become fewer and more timid than before. Some of the new inventions of this time seems clearly pointing toward modern whaling, but on a very few exceptions, they were intended for the capture of the lighter catch all species of whales and not the fin whale.5)For the preparation of the previous see: Wm. Scoresby, An Account of the Arctic Regions II, (Edinburgh 1820), 70 f., 79 O. fl. st. ‘-f* M. Scammon, Marine Mammals of the Northwestern Coast og North America, with an Account of the American Whale Fishery (New York 1874), 27, 226 228 O. fl. st. G. Brown Goode, Whales and porpoises. Sec. V, vol. I, in the Fisheries and Fishery Industries of the United States (Washington 1887), 247’—’264. j—| Walter S. Tower, A History of the American Whale Fishery (Publications of the University of Pennsylvania. Series in Political and Public Laws. No. 20) (Philadelphia 1907), 80 If. - Arne Odd Johnsen,The Shell Harpoon. A short Account of the Way in which Svend Foyn solved the Projectile Problem. (Norwegian Whaling Official Journal 1940), 222 — 241. - Arne Odd Johnsen, hopes & Fides. Steamship who ushered in the modern era of whaling. (Norwegian Maritime Museum. No.. 34) (Oslo 1940). — Chr. Bjelland Langenberg, Subtract whale cannon the history (Norges Handels- and Sjøfartstidende 7. May 1941).

 

English and Scottish hand harpoon.

The old whaling came as mentioned mainly the whale species that was particularly easy to catch, but during the American whaling industry was also made large catches of humpback whales that the belong to fin the group.6)Charles Haskins Townsend, The Distribution of Certain Whales as Shown by Logbook Records of American Whaleships. Zoologica XIX (1935). Characteristically drive Americans a significant catch on knølhval around the time of 185o.7)Karl Brandt, WKale Oil. An economic Analysis (Fats and Oils Studies. No. 7. Food Research Institute. Stanford University, California 1940). That is after they had acquired more efficient and temporal shooting gear.

A will of this understand that although it is very distinguishes modern whaling out of the old, so it is also very encouraging one to see a connection between the old and the new. We are now also in the fortunate situation that we can describe a whaling enterprise which forms an interesting link between the ancient and the modern whaling. This applies especially to Americans Thomas Welcome Roys and Gustav Adolph Lilli Dahl catch measures in Iceland. Despite Foyn himself made no secret that he was familiar with and had learned something from Roy and Lilliendahl,8)Jarlsberg Tidende 1 No. 72. - Morgenbladet 1868, 12. sept., No.. 253. - Parliamentary Proceedings 1873, 5 documents. document No.. 5 and No.. 65. - Polytechnic Journal 1878, 32—35. has neither Shaking or any other Norwegian researcher of the topic as much as occurred this interesting transitional phenomenon. And it is perhaps not so strange when even the most prominent American whaling historians apparently have not been aware of Roys' and Lilli Dahl's attempt capture of fin whales.9)The author of the present work, however, has already previously in different fonts come in to this topic. thus in: From the modern whaling Breakthrough. (Vestfold Memory II, 52—65, 1933). —? The Shell Harpoon. A short Account of the Way in which Svend Foyn solved the Projectile Problem. (Norwegian Whaling Official Journal 1940, 22’—-41). - hope & Fides: Steamship who ushered in the modern era of whaling. Norwegian Maritime Museum. No.. 34 (Oslo 1940). - Foyn and his diary (Oslo 1943). - See also my review of Karl Brandt Wkale Oil. An economic Analysis, in Norwegian Whaling Official Journal 1941, 107 f.

When I in 1940 søkte Old Dartmouth Historical Society and Whaling Museum, New Bedford, the details of these two American pioneers in modern whaling, it proved difficult even for this institution's curator, William H. Tripp, To find more information about Roy and Lilliendahl10)see f. example. Whaleman’s Shipping List (New Bedford), 1861, June, sstds. 1865, 14. febr. and sstds. 1867, 19. febr. It was only by an independent examination of manuscripts and newspapers Mr. Tripp found until the fabric of interest about his two countrymen pioneer enterprise. This material Mr. Tripp with great amiability has put at my disposal, gives us a number of valuable communications,11)B but the richest information about the US find whaling in Iceland, I have still found in Scandinavian sources.

The protagonist of the American whaling action in Iceland was Captain Thomas Welcome Roys.12)C Roy's fairytale the wheat and his significant contribution to , the American whaling industry is at the closest faded into oblivion.13)D He hears, however, quite undoubtedly the more interesting and significant personalities in the American whaling, and it is therefore to be hoped that he will sooner or later find their biographer. Roys who must be born14 around the same time as Foyn (you. 1809),15 sat inside with a virtually unmatched experience in everything concerning whaling. He ran catches both in the South Seas and in northern waters.16 The greatest recognition he won in America after he 1848 as captain of the "Superior" of Sag Harbor through Behring Strait needed until the Arctic waters. In this business broke Roy's way of whaling in the northern Pacific.17

Captain Roy * attempt to capture fin arises 1856. The 5. May this year he sailed with the brig W.F. Safford (174 Tons) from Sag Harbor, New York, the waters around Spitsbergen. About the purpose of this expedition writes Roy yourself: «The object of the voyage of Wm. F. Safford was to ascertain if there was any Polar WTiales about Nova Zembla,29 or Straits of Waygatch30 and if there were none to try if a cargo of oil could be obtained from Whales previously unavailable to mankind».31

American whaler, bark Morning Star. (Photo: Whaling Museum's photo archive)

Map of Iceland with American and Danish whaling stations in the 1860s.

W.F. Safford was equipped with rifles Roys' own construction. The expedition that crossed back and forth in the waters from Iceland to Novaya Zemlya, from Finnmark coast and to the White Sea, found no "Polar Whales», but came across large amounts of blue whales, fin whales and humpback whales. Roy also tried to capture some of these fin whales. About this tells himself: "We shot 22 blue whale (Leviathans) one of whom died, 26 humpback which 4 dead and 4 fin none of whom died. 9 blue whale, 12 humpback whales and 2 fin whale blew blood which is a proof that our aim was tolerable well and that all the grenades exploded. "32

Once Roy came back from this expedition, he improved shooting- implements on the basis of their experience. Guns and grenades were tried at the Royal Arsenal, Woolwich. Before implements finished tried, took Roys them to experiment with them on the fishing grounds by Portugal. On this occasion he was shot by the left hand, the grenade exploded in his gun for him. As soon as Roy had his hand amputated in Oporto, he went back to England to continue his experiments. In the years that followed (you. —Sg), was Roy's busily working to improve its tools in England, to try them in the catch and then improving them anew. After Roy 'own description judging utilized he at this time a projectile which consisted of both garnet and harpoon which fixes the claims incurred whale to the catcher at a line. There is hardly any reason to doubt that this shooting tool is identical to the rocket harpoon Roy received British patent on the 1857.33 He shot each year some whale of fin the group with this harpoon, but there was always something that did not work as it should preferably. Its shooting attempt drifted Roys in those years on the whales by the Portuguese and Spanish coast and in West Indian waters.

Roy faced countless obstacles during their trials, but it went clearly enough ahead of the test results. In 1859-60, he stated in a letter very optimistic about the chances of starting a find whaling on a large scale: I've seen these whales on traveling on the south coast of Greenland, the southwest- and the northeast coast of Iceland, ved Jan Mayen, Bjørnøya and along the ice to Novaya Semlja, at the mouth of the White Sea and at all the fjords on the north coast of Russia, Sweden (sic!) and Norway, down to St. Kilda rocks nær «The north Channel»,34 and on the coast of Spain and Portugal and the African coast to the Canary Islands where they are in the winter season. Of the blue whale sinks 1 of 3 drfepte, of fin whales 2 of 3 and Knole 1 of 2. I always up for 2 months ago considered it quite impracticable if not impossible to prevent whales from sinking, but accidental circumstances has taught me that this can be done both easily and securely.

I have now established that the firearm kills 1 at 2 anskutte whales as long time fuse is ignited, and that I can get fixed (to a whale) on 100 walking distance and more, I if necessary, increase skuddsfyrken to 5 or 6 times what it is now, we can come 100 walking distance of every kind of whale, which in the ocean, and that I have every reason to believe that I can completely prevent all whale from sinking. We're missing now only well made weapons, system to keep the whale floating ready for use and a ship equipped for another expedition to make the whole thing complete and to place the entire whaling now a broad and secure basis and to exclude any possibility of whaling now may become unprofitable, which soon will occur if no provide the means to capture the other whales that have not previously been available to mankind.35

British patent for improved missile cannon harpoon issued to Thomas Roy Gustav Lilliendahl in 1865. Letters patent first side refers to a patent for rocket guns and harpoons Roy had previously removed.

There can be no doubt that Roy signed prospects in overly bright colors. He could, for example. not point to catch results which gave him reason for such optimism pink. The letter is written to procure financial support of New Bedford whalers, and Roy has therefore emphasized the promising of the new whaling measure. The major future perspectives Roy rolled up, was in fact in bold woefully disproportionate to the results he had achieved. This was also probably one of the reasons why he did not get the support of the person he turned to.36

Thomas Roy and Gustav Lilli Dahl rocket harpoon that they received British patent on the 1865.

On the whole it seems Roy to have had a tendency to overestimate the effectiveness of their tools and their method of capture. His AD and his statements may seem bluffbetonte.37

An advertisement insertion of G. A. Lilliendahl in an American newspaper in June 1865.

At the time of 186038 came Roys in economic partnership relationship with Gustav Adolph Lilliendahl, New York, which was innehaver av 'one factory or a laboratory for greater measure of Fireworks matters. "39 First, in the 1860s ran Lilliendahl and Roy's catch of fin whales in the North Atlantic and the North Sea with sailing ships and rocket apparatus, but omla then catch as those in 1865 acquired a land station in Seydisfjord on the east side of the Island. Lilli Dahl and Roys' company had a distinctly cosmopolitan feel. I 1865 Drive the catch with two vessels: rope- barkskipet Reindeer of New York that led American flag, and the small screw steamer Visionary that same year was finished built in Scotland. It went under the Danish flag. Both vessels were equipped with small catchers (rowboats). Mens Reindeer most of the summer lay at anchor in Seydisfjord about as a station ship, walked Visionary still ut to catch a few hvalbåter (rowboats) in tow, then it was too small to hoist these. Once a whale was killed and captured, took Visionary the tow into Seydisfjord and allow the long side of kokeriskipet Reindeer. Here was the captive whale avspekket, and blubber was melted to oil in pans on old hvalfangervis was built-up on the deck slightly ahead of large hatch.

The blubber melted oil aboard kokeriskip in the old whaling days.

The Americans were long unlucky with the catch in 1865. Dels clicked grenades, partly missiles. Only after it was manufactured new missiles in Seydisfjord, began their catch to pick up. It was that year killed 40 whale, but it succeeded only catch 20 by them, they should have given a dividend of approximately. 900 barrels of oil.40 I september totalforliste Visionary. The expedition left however Seydisfjord until the last half of November when it went with the capture proceeds to Dundee in Scotland. As participants in their catch undertaking had Thomas Roy's brother Samuel Roy and half brothers Henry, John and Andrew Roy. These were partly shooters, partly entrusted to other important duties. Very suggests that Roys in this way sought to keep their catch secrets to themselves. Otherwise utilized Lilliendahl and Roy for most Americans, bulkheads, Danes and Icelanders to their enterprise.

From a whaling station in Iceland. After drawing Illustrated Family Journal, that. 1870.

Winter 1865-1866 was preparing Lilliendahl and Roys quite a little offensive against the powerful whales and could it follows our set 3 steamship into the catch; Liteno which was transformed from schooner to skruedampskip, and in Henderson, Colesbourne & Co. by Renfrew Glasgow 2 newly built iron steam- ships Steypireyder and Vigilant. The latter belonged to Henderson, Anderson & Co., Liverpool, but was under the catch led by Henry Roy and operated as part of the Americans' quest. All three ships led Danish flag.

It seems the sources going forward that kokeriskipet Reindeer did not come to Seydisfjord this year. The intention was evidently in this season to boil blubber partly on a floating factory on land which was built already in the previous year, and partly on board the S / S Steypireyder and Vigilant. Each of these sister vessels were in fact provided with a very costly dampkokeri and with associated hydraulic press, but none of them responded to the purpose. Virtually the entire catch therefore had to be constructed on land and station dampkokeri had to be extended by 4 boilers.

Drawing in Svend Foyn diary of Americans shoot implements (On top) and Roys’ gummisfropp. D. e. accumulator which Roys uttok Norwegian patent on the 1866, and that Foyn registered as part of their catch method. Right: whale game.

This steam digester was adapted to cooking oil both packed and legs.42 It looks - the time taken into account - seems to have been something along the lines of the exemplary. It was undoubtedly a substantial part built up on the basis of the experiences Ths. Roy had the won under the old catch, and came to the main features are likely to serve as a model both for the Danish Fiskeriselskabs and Svend Foyn first floating factory of a similar nature.

However, we should note that just like stoves and hydraulic presses on Steypireyder and Vigilant also showed the benknusemaskinen Roys had acquired, itself unusable, and for that reason was one steam engine so to speak, superfluous. A large amount of costly equipment was procured to no avail. Moreover showed shoot implements somewhat deficient also this year. The missiles were not powerful enough to penetrate deep into the animal and several grenades would not run. A number rakettharpuner therefore had to be reworked at the station in Seydisfjord.

The rocket harpoon Americans utilized in Iceland 1865 and later, is undoubtedly identical to the apparatus Ths. Roys and G.A. Lilliendahl uttok British patent for the 1865.43 Foyn has in his diary during her visit to Iceland provided the following short and concise description of the Americans shoot implements: "The harpoon which line is, projected from the shoulder of an iron pipe, propelling a rocket o f the rate of tendency of a pistol, in front of the rocket is a exploderende Piil (you. grenade)* which turns on when it burns out. "44 These Svend Foyn words should serve as a brief explanatory text to the drawing of Roy and Lilli Dahl missile harpoon which is reproduced overleaf.

For the uninitiated it may at first glance look like a weakness of the Americans shoot method that cannon or rather shoot the ear should be balanced on the shooter's shoulder. In high seas and fierce blown then this must have been quite a feat.

Engineer- and båtkyndige however upon request communicated to me that Roy 'shooting method was probably the luckiest when it came to capture from rowboats. Was firing tube attached at the boat stern, it would easily be too low placed. Another thing was that a sea- and båtvant man should be able to adapt his aim well despite the swell.45

Roy has probably got the idea for their missiles from rocket artillery, which was utilized by the military in the mid-1800s. Liaison States utilized missile weapons in the war against Mexico in 184446 and in Europe were these weapons known and used in the period from the 1840s and into the 1870s. earlier in 1800- century was that of William Congreve47 i 1804 invented fire rocket adopted by the military in Europe and utilized bl. a. by bombardment av Copenhagen in 1807. Congreve went in the 1820s also plans to use its rocket to whaling. Prince Inside von Small friend talks about this in a letter (of 10. febr. 1821) the first Metternich: «Congreve wants to use his rocket for making war on whale. He dined with me yesterday. He explained all sorts of marvellous things to me, but I can remember this alone: He wants the rocket not only to shoot into the whale the harpoon which is to secure it, but also to explode in the wretched creature’s belly, so as to prevent it submerging and thus make its capture easy for the Whalers. Odious manl Whales are probably delightful beings.»

In time almost by Congreve death (O: 1828) contained the Danish artillery captain Schumacher missiles with bullets, grenades and kardesker.49 There were these weapons that were utilized by the military from the 1840s by. It was probably bl. a. both Congreve results and plans and Schumacher's inventions Roys and Lilliendahl built on in their quest to create efficient shooting tools for the capture of fin whales. It is in this context worth noting that Roys in time from 1856 to 1865 happily trying their rocket appliances at the Royal Arsenal, Woolwich, where Congreve had previously been the top boss.

I den 2. World War II got missile weapons renaissance. They were utilized bl. a. that firearms for aircraft. For airplanes that for the small rowing boats Roys and Lilliendahl used to whaling, it was significant that the missile weapon was relatively easy to handle ogutenrekyle. The rocket weapon Roys and Lilliendahl were masters, dare safely characterized as an extremely interesting and ingenious device.

harpoon gun, ladd.

according to O. C. Hammers diary managed Americans then also both shooting and spotting whales even in rough weather.

Royse hunting was carried out roughly this way: The three steamers went out, each with a pair of rowing in tow. As soon as one of one of the steamers spotted whale blown, went seven men in each of the small hunting boats and those persecuted whale. It was important to get the whale in well within range, and then for the shooter to get good aim. As the shot went off, for the harpoon out of shooting- tube and dragged line with it so that the claims incurred whale was fixed to the boat. Dead whale instantaneous, it was all hard single. So they pulled the boat over to the whale, there was added a hand harpoon in it and this was left to steamer which came on signal.

Sank the whale immediately, and it was so heavy that the boat did not bar the, had one four line of the animal reached the bottom and give the end of the steamship which then went on to get the whale raised, if this was possible.

Was whale wounded, but so that the harpoon stuck, took it gladly boat in tow at high speed. Roy had, according to captain Tvede notices50 mounted a so inconvenient games in rowing boats that it was virtually impossible for them to haul themselves into the whale to harpooned it anew. It was therefore the second catcher who had to try to get given the whale coup de grace.

After the Americans had taken part firing experiments in Seydisfjord early summer 1866, succeeded them to bring shooting tools in tolerable condition, and a piece out in June came the catch well underway. After captain Tvede notes to judge,51 reminds Americans catch summer 1866 much about Foyn in breakthrough year 1868. At the end of September, the Americans in everything captured 40 and killed many more whales, mostly blue whale, but also some fin whales and humpback whales. The catch was made between 300 and 2 400 barrels of oil. By Tvede description get a strong impression that the Americans by showing greater energy and akkuratesse in everything enough had been able to achieve a bigger yield of their catch in both 1865 and in 1866.

American whaling fleet frozen in the ice and abandoned by the crew in September 1871. (Wikimedia Commons)

In relation to the tremendous cost Americans enterprise had demanded, was the capture yield little too in 1866. The business operated at a loss and Roys resigned at this season's end52 out of the business Thomas Roy with so much zeal had taken hold of 11 years earlier. Lilliendahl however, would not give up yet, but led the catch from Seydisfjord alone in 1867. the result was 36 captive whale. The company must this year have been at a loss. The company went bankrupt, and this great American effort to drive modern whaling by Iceland was stated.68

Thomas Welcome Roys' and Gustav Adolph Lilli Dahl hvalfangsttiltak on the Island forms a very interesting chapter in the history of whaling.

This American recording of a modern whaling was so ingenious and large landscaped, and it could exhibit such significant results that much may seem to indicate that Roy and Lilliendahl here was trying to found a new livelihood of large dimensions. Ask one about why the attempt failed, it is not easy to give a short and full answer. The reasons were surely many.

Compares one Roys' capture method with the Foyn after several attempts did until recently in the 1860s, falls in the eyes that Foyn was the superior. But this need not exclude that Roys' capture system could have led to a profitable catch on now had been managed with the same energy as f. example. Foyns. It is clear enough by Svend Foyn diary that he was impressed with the Americans' actions and that he in the years that followed almost by 1866, copied certain part of their catch system. Foyn stated in a newspaper article in 1868 with. a. that Americans utensils seemed to him "too costly for Vore Dealing".54 Here is Foyn onto something significant. Rocket harpoon like it enough here particularly refers to, was precious, and pricey were also all the way the US catch was led and driven on. Instead as Foyn to the test all the tools and methods in a small way, beat Americans express big on, and every failure was therefore extremely kapitalødende.

While Foyn personally with the greatest vigilance and zeal led all stages of their business, It seems that the Americans were led on a rather relax way. One gets AAV sources a strong impression that Ths. Roy even though he was about the same age as Foyn, not in any way longer in possession of a vitality, working capacity and initiative wealth could compete with Foyn. Captain Lieutenant Hammer stated then also already in 1866 following about the American whalers in Iceland: "The only one, that pigeons or duet something Whaling, is old Thomas Roy, but he is soon too old . . .»55

There is so much greater reason to assume that the US measure would have been able to succeed if it had been driven careful and energetic, which catch- year 1866 Despite all careless profligacy exhibited any real loss. Captain Lieutenant Hammer says in his diary the following about Lilliendahl and Roys' capture dividends in 1866: "Although this last might seem satisfactory, then shows the three to catch used Ships measures carried Calculation only one to Interest coverage høyst insignificant profit. "56

It may at first glance look almost inexplicable that Roy's brothers pulled out of the enterprise after a year of relatively promising catches,. The reason is probably bl. a. in major loss the adverse capture test had caused them through a long number of years.

Old whale catch housing in Siasconset on Nantucket Island, Massachusetts. Siasconset has the Atlantic in front of them. On the beach star a sign with a hand pointing out to sea: 3000 mil to Spain. The old fun houses where whalers and fishermen lived, is entwined with rosebushes. They inhabited now most of summer visitors.

American capital and labor searched by the way at this time increasingly over the whaling business to other businesses, which was less hazardous and that gave workers better and more comfortable living conditions. In New Bedford, sprung up a profitable cotton swabs industry from 1846 of.61 A number of other industries and the giant's efforts to put the West under the plow pulled massive amounts of capital and labor to themselves. And after the oil wells in Pennsylvania recently opened in the 1850s and offered raw materials that had all the conditions to destroy the market for sperm- and whale oil, it had to be as obvious to most Americans that whaling no longer had any great future for themselves.

Captain Lieutenant O.C. Hammer.

Captain Lieutenant Hammer rob prisoners.

The special US price curves for whale oil and baleen in 1850- and 1860s casts a clarifying light on the economic background for Roy and Lilli Dahl catch measures.62 The prices of these raw products were bl. a. caused by Crimean War steadily from 1853 to 1856. A dare probably expect that this rise in oil 58 ^ To 79 ^ 2 per cent. gallon and the baleen of 34 ^ 2 to 58 St. Q. pound - along with the strong downturn within just whaling - has been a contributing reason why Thomas Roy in 1856 dared to grapple with the great task: to create a modern catch of fin whales. In the years that followed, sank the American price of whale oil significantly and reached 1861 a low point with 44 gallon. Bardeprisene was relatively good, but swung strongly up and down in the same period. Whale oil was however the main product of the catch, and the oil price was therefore of decisive importance for this hunting industry.

The price decline from 1856 to 1861 are in good agreement with Roy's letters from 1859 - stay that clear enough explains that this pioneer had big financial difficulties to contend with. First, in the 1860s got Roys however Lilliendahl to partner and together extended the two now highly, particularly in 1865 and 1866. The upswing Roys' business got in these years, was due primarily to the American Civil War. The war seemed crippling at a number close- lodges in Sambandsstatene, the need for a variety of products, including whale oil and baleen, increased greatly, and the prices of the latter two items rose during the four years to roughly triple the price level in 1861.63

The relatively high oil prices in 1864 and 1865 must evidently have worked strongly with the Roys and Lilliendahl in 1866 proceeded with a significant whaling measures station in Seydisfjord and that the following year expanded this business so strongly. The years 1866 and 67 commanded, however, a marked decline in the prices of the main whale products, whale oil had in 1867 decreased to approximately. 5o% * of the US price level two years earlier.

Steamship Thomas Roys. In the foreground one whaling ship. The man at the prow with shoots ear over the shoulder.

This new adversity broken understandably both corporate finance and Roys' and Lilli Dahl's optimism.

war downturn (1861–65) had given Roys' hazardous pioneer measures a flicker in the sails. With peace came the economic life the United States of remaining in their old thread. The internal colonization and industrialization took ever greater proportions and swallowed increasingly initiative, power and capital. Thomas Roy's famous pioneer measures stood in a way contrary to the essential point behind Liaison States' economic development in this period. And against such forces are fighting people usually vain.

When Roy's attempt to drive modern whaling not successful, caused by it as a will understand, for a significant part, some of the factors that led to such a strong decline in the US catch at. But Roy and his companion Lilliendahl have profits of having made a relatively resultatrik modern whaling in Nordic waters. They were pioneers in a livelihood that would later gain international dimensions, and their actions have demonstrably given impetus to both Danish, Dutch and Norwegian whalers, it will primarily say captain Col. O. C. Hammer, Captain Bottemanne and Foyn.

Captain Lieutenant O.C. Hammer with panache had participated in 1. and 2. slesvigske war was one of the driving forces at the foundation of the Danish Fisheries Society. This company Varet typical patriotic undertaking. The purpose of it was clear enough to create a Danish fisheries- and trapping industry from Iceland for the sea to find a kind of compensation for what Denmark had lost in war. The company was founded in December 1865 with a share capital of 180 000 rix.64 From the beginning, it was intended that the company on a small scale and clean. tentatively would try whaling after Lilliendahl and Roy 'method, but hopes for big profits meant that the emphasis would be placed on whaling.

The Danish Fisheries Society Thomas Roys under rope. (Wikimedia Commons)

Hammer sat down already before the company starting in connection with Thomas Roy. It was between them agreed that Captain Tvede, which was subject to the driver of a fishery company ships, going to come aboard Lilliendahl and Roys' farføyer to study whaling practices. Americans should give Tvede all the information he had no use for. John Roy and three other Americans - shooters and whale boat operators - would go aboard the Danish whaler Fiskeriselskabs vapors and give Danes training in the catch. In return, committed Hammer to purchase a larger portion of the Roys' rakettharpuner.

Captain Tvede was summer 1865 note that the American whaling method was far from being perfect, but when the industry went better in the latter part of the season, and then it all were brought ashore 20 whale, considered the Danes after all whaling now promising. Fisheries Company acquired including a whaler steams on 108 12 kommerselest; as a compliment to pioneer in the area got the name Thomas Roys.65

Towards the end of April 1866 came Hammer with Thomas Roys to Hafnarfjordur on the southwest coast of Iceland and filed enhvalfangststasjonder. Hammer had John Roys and the three Americans seriously suspected of conducting sabotage and it lasted was not long before these by common accord left the business.66 During his stay in Hafnarfjordur got Hammer notification that the capture conditions at this time would be particularly beneficial on the southeast coast of Iceland. Here let Hammer construct an establishment No.. 2 Djupivogur and from this station salvaged his first whale without the Americans' help, but entirely by their method. Danes' catch crop was this year 6 whale and shares in two drifted ashore. Some thirty whales that were killed, was lost.67 The years that followed, the result was 14 captive whale.68 1868 was a particularly unlucky year69 of the Danish Fisheries Society. It was not brought ashore more than 6 whales this season.70 Gives Thomas Roys wrecked in 1869, it was only caught one whale this year. After repairs went mass Roys under Hammers' lead sealing in 1870, but the ship was seriously leaking under the catch and suffered a total loss on arrival at the Island.

At the end of February 1871 it was in the shareholders resolved to dissolve the Danish Fisheries Society. The company then had for several years been pursued by a number of accidents and had the whole time been at a loss. The total loss amounted to well 250 000 riksdaler and hence caused about. 175 000 rdl., you. significantly more than 23 of the total amount, the unfortunate whaling measure.

The Danish Fisheries Society was mentioned a patriotic action. Despite continual deficit and despite the fact that its prospects the entire time was anything but bright, sacrificed Danish capitalists thousands and thousands of riksdaler at this peculiar, improvised measure. Particularly in the case whaling, dare Danish measures characterized as foolhardy. At a time when driven American whalers yet experimented with catches of fin whales, let the Danes sank lured into this business and operational managers put the naval officer Hammer. Hammer was undoubtedly an energetic and in many respects excellent man, but some experience in the arctic, he had not. It was therefore not to be expected that he would be able to do better than Americans. So strange, it is not that experienced trappers who Roys brothers looked at Danes as "greenhorns" and treated them accordingly.

Danes' big mistakes our was that they proceeded with whaling without even sit inside with in-depth experience of the arctic. They had apparently easy to learn, were hardworking and oriented themselves well. They tried even to improve Roys' method of capture. Hammer placed the firing tube on a stand, and he received the Danish orlogsverft and fyrverkeren Gaetano Amici to make different types of rakettharpuner. Moreover, he made certain changes in whale boats' (rowing the) furnishings.

It interes test result, Danes' unsuccessful attempt whaling is perhaps the grenade harpoon Gaetano Amici got Danish patent on 3. sept. 1867. Amici which was inserted on whaling issues of its work for the Danish Fisheries Society, has apparently already winter 1866-1867 begun to doubt that it was rakettharpuner to solve the capture problem. The apparatus Amici receive patents, consisted of a cannon with four rifle times. The gun should have an opening in the lower edge so that the projectile should be fired, could entail a line. The front end of the projectile may consist of a pointed edge grenade were ignited by a fuse. When the grenade exploded, the batch in 3 fuze (in the projectile) ignited, and berved was developed quenching gas. Side adjacent shell was placed four knives (you. agnorer) opened by the shell cracking. Transversely through the short projectile was a bolt provided with a ring. In this ring there should be an iron yoke provided with defy (line). (See illustration below.)71

Gaetano Amicis patented grenade harpoons and cannon.

It was like a will understand, a grenade harpoon which would be launched with a powder charge of a cannon. Amici here patented the. His projectile unites this way grenade and harpoon and is provided with a line that would attach the whale to the boat. There is a striking difference between Foyn grenade harpoon of 1870 and Amicis of 1867, but there are also different points of similarity.

It is not impossible that Amicis apparatus has been one of the factors that made Foyn to unite garnet and harpoon in one projectile, but something surely

we do not know about this. Already Roys' projectile and other granatharpuner had the also had these characteristics. It does not seem that Amici's patented grenade harpoon was tried in the catch. both 1867 and the following year utilized Hammer rakettharpuner, and after 1868 there were no more of the Danish whaling. It is likely that Foyn have become acquainted with Amicis invention when he in October 1868 stayed in Copenhagen bl. a. to confer with Lieutenant Commander Hammer. The Danish newspaper 'fathers- country "took the occasion following Notis: "Norges known and reputed Robbefanger, Captein Svend Foyn, which this year has driven Whaling with success, In those days stayed here in the city to communicate and receive mutual useful information that way, whereupon Whaling operated by Captein Hammer and himself. we hope, his visit may bear fruit for both parties. "72

During his visit in Copenhagen spoke Foyn also with Amici. "I can afford- asked the celebrated Copenhagen fyrverker Amaci (sicl); I have used German and English grenades, but all ten! no use; …"Says Foyn in its patent application of 1870.73 Anything can Foyn enough to have learned of such a skilled professional who Amici, but not reasonably very much more than he knew before. A dare enough to assume that Amici and Hammer had more to learn from the Norwegian arctic grand old man than vice versa. Foyn had undoubtedly right when he in his patent application of 1873 with. a. wrote: 'Captain Hammer of the Danish marine equipped also a costly expedition to the same end without much luck, as he in 1869 had to leave the task unresolved. I must state here as evidence of, that my methode is completely new, that when I later advised kapt. Hammer to like me to shoot the whale from the steamer, I got to answer, he in such a case absolutely had to convert his gear, which his company lacked the necessary funds. "74

The Danish Fiskeriselskabs whaling business was small innovative, it took just about everything down from Lilliendahl and Roys' undertaking. For Foyn there has probably been a certain value that he through Hammer could get a good grasp of the Americans' capture- and manufacturing methods.

Also from the Dutch side there was an attempt to drive modern whaling after Roy and Lilli Dahl's method. It was a clean case that led to the Dutch went ahead with this contract. autumn 1865 came the Dutch schooner Jan Albert led by Captain Bottemanne the coast of Iceland with a charge of coal destined for the American whaling establishment for the Seydisfjord.75 It broke up a strong storm, schooner drifted ashore, was condemned and the insurer's expense tilslått Lilliendahl and Roys. At this visit must captain Bottemanne have been given the opportunity to familiarize themselves with the Americans' catch measures. It is therefore close to assume that it was during this Island stay Bottemanne got the impulse to start a Dutch whaling company.

The Dutch had honored whaling tradition to look back on. They had in the first half of the 1800s in vain sought to revive his old whaling,70 and Captain Bottemanne now wanted to create a contemporary Dutch whaling. He succeeded also to get some Rotterdam-capitalists to staple a whaling company (1869) who set a task to catch whales for Lilliendahl and Roys' method. The company acquired a screw steamer Noordkaper unless fangstbåter to catch.77 Captain Bottemanne ran as Americans and Danes catch by Iceland. The first year - 1870 - he caught just one whale. The following year he was killed 26 whale, but recovered only half. When the catch is not showed better results in 1872, was this Dutch whaling measure liquidated. A renewed Dutch trials 1875 also beat error, and thus it was until the forward end with the Dutch initiative to bring about a modern whaling business.78

The total number of whales that were trapped by Roys' method, was not very big, yet so significant that the material we have cited in this regard, deserves to be set beside Foyn catch results in the same years.79

The Dutch whaler Noordkaper.

1 Absolutely exact catch results, it is difficult to establish in this column when the various source- notices may diverge quite strongly. The below listed numbers dare considered minimumsoppgaver.1 Ever exact catch results, it is difficult to establish in this column when the various source- notices may diverge quite strongly. The below listed figures dare considered a minimum tasks.
2 See Captain Tvede Article: "The American Whaling Company in Iceland in 1865-1866». (Danish Journal of Fisheries. 2 Aarg. 1868, 5o-69. cf.. "Udtog of Capt.lnt. O. Hammers Diary "in the same journal 1868, 218’—290. See also Kaptejnløitnant O. C. Hammer. A description of life by R. Hammer, 198.
3 Under It 1 2 3 4 behaved sources. Lilliendahl and Roys' catch given this year to 40 1/2 whale, this is considered 41 whale when the whale company received a share of, dare considered as a result of Roysemes catch. Danes' catch amounted this year 6 whale and shares in two whale. We have calculated the Danish catch this year 8 whale, partly for the same reason as for Roysernes competent, Ford of Thomas W. Roys i and i warning Whalemens Shipping List 1867 19. feb. announced that it 1866 with his rocket harpoon at Island was caught 43 blue whale, 7 Knol and 12 find whale, it would total say 62 whale. We expect the Danish catch to 8 and the US to 41, we get a total catch on 49 whales this year, you. 13 fewer than Roys' own task. We therefore count dry 49 as a minimum task. For the Danish catch him cf.. Berlingske Tidende 1867 4. feb., p. 2.
4 The US catch amounted this year 36 (See Jarlsberg and larvae Amtstidende 1868, No.. 72) and the Danish 14 whale (Kaptejnløitnant A. C. Hammer. A description of life by R. Hammer, 226).
5 Bergensposten 1868, No.. 249.
6 Kaptejnløitnant A. C. Hammer, A Life description, 23.
7 Op.cit., 2^5. - cf.. A. Beaujon, Overview of the History of the Dutch Zeevi Serbian Rows, Leiden 1885.
8 cf.. cited works of A. Beaujon.
9 The task of Foyn catch even 1867 as well as for the year 1872 taken from Ame Odd Johnsen, Foyn and his diary, 88.
10 The tasks of Foyn catch from 1868 and up to and including 1871 taken from the International Whaling Statistics XVI (Oslo 1942), 9.

At a time when Foyn despite significant economic sacrifice and great effort conducted a fruitless and extremely discouraging battle with the strong whale, chloride at Island obtained relatively large catches by Roy 'method. Foyn visited the Americans capture station in Iceland in July 1866 and the first thing he encountered at this visit, where: «… one americansk steamer who had fished one fin whale . . .»80 This year it was for Roys' method caught at least 49 and in 1867 5the finnhval. Even got Foyn no whales in 1866 and only one in the years that followed.

Foyn got in Iceland with their own eyes see that it really was possible to drive a relatively resultatrik catch of fin whales. Very suggests that he made this experience just in a psychological important moment and that the knowledge of the American initiative inspired him to lead the fight with the strong whale until the final victory.

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